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Semen Collection and Processing
- Frozen (semen can be frozen from stallions at PEVS or cooled shipped semen can be sent to us from another facility and then frozen)
Breeding Soundness Examination
We recommend that stallions intended for breeding receive a breeding soundness examination prior to the start of every breeding season, or prior to purchase. This helps to diagnose any problems the stallion may have, and attempt to treat them before they interfere with the stallion’s breeding performance.
- Semen Evaluation – concentration, motility, morphology , membrane integrity and SCSA (sperm chromatin structural assay)
- External Genitalia Exam and Ultrasound – size, volume and consistency of testicles; calculate estimated daily sperm output (DSO); examine spermatic cords via ultrasound; look for tumors, hydrocoeles, testicular degeneration, etc; examination of the shaft/glans penis for tumors, lacerations, etc
- Internal Genitalia Exam and Ultrasound – assess accessory sex glands (prostate, bulbourethral glands, seminal vesicles); assess and measure ampullae size & lumen
- Urethral endoscopy (if necessary)
Chemical collection of a stallion can be performed if the stallion has a physical inhibition to prevent him from mounting a mare or the phantom, or if the stallion has libido or other ejaculatory issues. It is performed by giving the stallion a combination of medications that lower the ejaculatory threshold. Semen can then be assessed and used for fresh breeding, cooled/shipped semen, or for freezing.
Assessment of Reproductive Problems
- Decreased pregnancy rates
- Decreased libido
- Ejaculatory failure
- Poor semen quality
- Hemospermia (blood in ejaculate)
Post-mortem Epididymal Sperm Harvest and Freezing
Unfortunately, sudden death or terminal disease or injury may strike a stallion. In this case, semen can be harvested from the epididymides of the stallion in order to cryopreserve for future breedings immediately following death or euthanasia. Also, elective epididymal sperm harvest can be elected at the time of castration of a horse. The horse may be either transported to PEVS, or the testicles can be shipped to us for harvest. We ask that you communicate with us prior to euthanasia or shipment of testicles in order to discuss the stallion’s health status, namely for Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA), Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), and/or Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) status. Some distribution and storage centers of frozen semen require proof that the stallion is negative for these diseases. Blood samples can be pulled prior to euthanasia or castration to test for EVA and EIA, and swabs of the urethra and fossa glandis can be taken to test for CEM.
Preparing the testicles for epididymal sperm harvest and transport – The testicles can be removed from the stallion using normal castration procedures, taking care to leave the tail of the epididymis and as much of the ductus deferens as possible intact. The ductus deferens should be transected as high up on the spermatic cord as possible and the end tied off with suture in order to prevent leakage of sperm. Each testis should be rinsed with saline and packaged in its own sleeve or plastic bag. The testes should be shipped chilled, using either an Equitainer (packaged just as it would for cooled semen shipment) or shipped in an insulated container packed with ice, making sure that the testes are protected from direct contact with the ice by using a towel to layer between the testes and ice (do not use dry ice). The testes should be shipped to our facility as soon as possible. If same day, counter-to-counter transportation is not available in your area, overnight shipment using FedEx (similar to cooled semen shipment) should be sufficient.
Feel free to contact us if you have any questions concerning our Stallion Services at PEVS.
We are always available for a consultation.
If you have any questions and would like to speak with a Veterinarian, please call us at 803-641-0644